English Summary – Ideas That Have Helped Mankind | Bertrand Russell | 12thEnglish.com

English Summary: Ideas That Have Helped Mankind | Bertrand Russell  Bihar Board 12th | 100 Marks English | by Malendra Sir 

‘Ideas That Have Helped Mankind’ is an essay written by British philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell.

In this essay, he has depicted ideas that have helped mankind become civilized and superior to animals.

Humans have intellectual abilities and moral qualities that make humans different from animals.
Some of mankind’s inventions helped humans to become civilized.
For example, the discovery of fire is considered a milestone in the race for civilization.
Man started keeping domesticated animals with him.
The domestication of such animals helped humans in many ways.
The idea of ​​discovering and writing language elevated man from a wild creature to its present civilized state.
Civilization gave the idea of ​​living in a family.
It also gave the society some criteria to live a moral life.
Civilization taught us to be friendly with each other.
On the other hand, there are some defects in humans that are not found in animals, for example, emotions.
Emotions take away the mental peace of man, but other moral and intellectual qualities help human beings to be happier and calmer.
Ultimately, the invention of the printing press changed the whole picture of civilization. This led to the more rapid dissemination of information and accelerated the journey towards the civilization of mankind.

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